How to: Choose Snow Tires
Do I need to buy winter tires or can I just get snow chains?
What the heck is siping?
When do I have to have studded tires and when will studless do?
If you're wondering how to pick the right tires for winter, or whether you need them at all, here are answers to the eight most common questions about winter tires.
(A lot of people still call tires used in the cold months "snow tires," but it's more accurate to call them "winter tires." For purposes of this article, we use both terms to mean tires designed for winter driving.)
1. "Do I need snow tires?"
Winter tires are important for safe driving if you live somewhere that gets snow, ice, sleet or freezing rain and temperatures of 40 degrees or colder. They're also the right option if you routinely make trips through snow zones or the mountains during the cold months.
2. "If my tires are marked ‘M+S' on the sidewall am I good to drive on snow?"
Some all-season tires are rated M+S, standing for mud and snow. This means the tread design delivers better traction in wet conditions than non-M+S tires.
But it doesn't mean they're adequate for winter driving. In slick conditions, they don't deliver the traction, control and short stopping distance that you get from a snow tire.
If you want safer driving on packed snow or ice, look for tires made with the right compound and branded with the Mountain Snowflake. This means they've actually been tested and certified to perform in winter conditions.
3. "I have all-season tires, so I don't need snow tires. Right?"
Wrong. Don't believe it? See this driving comparison between all-season and snow tires.
If you're driving on snowy or icy roads, only winter tires will give you good stopping ability and secure handling. This is because they're built very differently. How?
Different compound. Summer and all-season tires are made with a stiffer rubber compound. This helps the tire retain its shape when it's rolling on hot pavement. Winter tires are made with hydrophilic (that's "water-loving") rubber which stays softer and more pliable in winter weather. This more flexible rubber is one reason you get more traction on snow and ice.
Another reason is tread design. Winter tires have a higher "void-to-lug" ratio, meaning there are larger grooves between the blocks of tread (the lugs). The tread blocks also have irregular, sharp edges.
When a tire with wide grooves and biting edges travels over packed snow, it cuts through and scoops some of the snow into the voids on the tire surface, allowing the tread to stay in closer contact with the road. Then the velocity of the tire ejects this snow from the grooves. This is how winter tires provide more aggressive traction than all-season tires.
4. "Should I get my snow tires siped?"
Most snow tires are already siped, with small patterned slits on the lugs that create extra edges for better road grip. Additional safety siping can be done for a fee on new or used tires. If you're regularly traveling on slick roads, the added traction from custom siping is a good way to improve starting, stopping and rolling traction.
5. "Is it okay to buy used winter tires?"
Before you jump on that set of "lightly used" winter tires on Craigslist, do three quick checks. First, verify they're the right size. You can look in your vehicle owner's manual or right on your existing tires' sidewall close to the rim for the series of numbers. (Here's a primer on what they all mean.) If you're not sure the tires you're considering are the correct size, call a tire dealer and make sure.
Second, measure the tread depth by using a tire tread depth gauge. You can pick one up at any auto parts store for under five bucks. Or have a tire store tech do it; it should be free. Take measurements in multiple places in the grooves on each tire. Here's how.
A new tire typically has 11/32nds of an inch in tread depth. A rule of thumb is that if there are 6/32nds of an inch or less in tread remaining on a winter tire, it's about to lose a good deal of snow performance. So think carefully about whether you're going to get what you're paying for.
Third, be sure there's not a problem with uneven wear. Did your tread gauge measurements show any tread depth difference between the four tires? It's really common for tires to wear differently over time. If the disparity between any two tires is more than 3/32nds of an inch, pass on those used tires. Driving with mismatched tires or putting the wrong size on your vehicle will NOT save you money in the long run. You're risking big repair bills for your transmission.
It's also a bad idea to put winter tires on only the front or back. This creates a big difference in traction between your axles. And this will mean less steering control, not more.
6. "Can I just buy chains instead of snow tires?"
Tire chains can be important?and are sometimes required?for traction when you're traveling in the mountains or on icy roads. But they're not made for driving at highway speed or on bare pavement. You risk damaging your chains if you try this.
Don't think of chains as a substitute for winter tires but as an option you need to have ready when you're driving on snow.
Depending on the conditions and your state's rules, traction controls in snowy areas will range from requiring only the minimum?like M+S tires on the drive axle?up to chains on all tires, including all-wheel and four-wheel drive vehicles. Here are California's controls, for example.
7. "Do I need studded snow tires or studless?"
The tire dealer will consider your driving habits, where you're traveling and typical winter conditions in your area when recommending what you need.
Studless snow tires work well on slush and packed snow. They get traction through wide, deep grooves and lots of irregular surfaces with sharp edges. This allows the rubber to cut through snow and grip the road.
Studded tires provide the best traction you can get, even when you're encountering ice. Studs are lightweight pins that are arrayed across the tread. Like claws on a snowshoe, they dig in to slick surfaces. Note: Extra tread depth is needed to accommodate studs, so studded tire size options are limited. Also, the times of year when studded tires are allowed on the road vary by state. Here's a guide to studded tire regulations.
8. "Should I buy winter tires with rims?"
It's a question of time and money. Here's a way to decide:
- Assume you'll have your snow tires for five years.
- Total up the cost your tire dealer will charge for swapping out tires twice a year (ten times) if they're not on rims. (Les Schwab will swap out tires purchased at our stores at no charge if they're mounted on separate wheels.)
- Compare that figure to the price of the rims to see if there are savings.
- Factor in a bit more waiting time, since it takes the shop longer to unmount and remount the tires on the rims each time.
- Weigh whether the tradeoff in any money saved is worth the extra waiting room time.
Also consider the extra wear and tear on your tires that comes with unmounting and remounting tires on only one set of wheels. Especially with low-profile tires, it's not uncommon for an inexperienced tire tech to damage the inside edge of a tire near the beads, the places where the tire gets pried off and pushed back on.
If you're leaning toward separate wheels for your winter tires, here are some tips on selecting the best wheel finishes for winter conditions.
Check out tests from the Tire Industry Association in this video to see what the difference winter tires can make.
The Bottom Line on Picking Winter Tires
Some all-season tires are marketed as working equally well in summer and winter. That may be true in dry, mild climates where the seasons don't vary much. But you'll only get confident traction, braking and control on snow and ice with a winter tire. If you live in a place with winter weather, you'll need tires marked with the Mountain Snowflake for safest handling. Because not all tires with a mountain snowflake have a winter compound, ask your tire dealer what you really need.
Want more tips on winter road safety? See 19 Winter Driving Resources You Can't Do Without.
14 Items to Put in Your Winter Road Trip Safety Kit
If you're going over the hills, through the woods or over a mountain pass during wintry months, do yourself a favor. Put a winter road trip kit in your vehicle, just in case.
Icy roads and traffic jams in cold weather aren't predictable. Preparing in advance may save you some misery...and keep you safer in bad driving conditions.
Here are items to put in a winter road trip safety kit to keep in your vehicle during the cold months.
1. Plastic storage tub for keeping it all together and dry. And easy stowing when warmer weather returns.
2. Headlamp. It could be not only snowing but dark when you realize you're going to have to put on the snow chains.
3. Speaking of tire chains, don't forget them. If you have several sets of chains for several vehicles, putting the right chains in a dedicated winter safety kit for each car will keep you from being stranded with the wrong chains when you need them. (Here's a video on how to install chains.)
4. Reflective gear. A fluorescent safety vest with reflective strips can be bought at most big box home improvement stores. Orange warning triangles are available at most auto parts stores.
5. Windshield ice scraper, in case of freezing rain, sleet or heavy snow.
6. Waterproof jacket with a hood and rainpants. You'll be glad to have that hood to keep snow from going down your back if you need to put on chains.
7. Something to sit or kneel on when installing chains. Snowy or icy pavement is not a comfortable surface. A small tarp or even a piece of cardboard will really help.
8. Gloves. Mittens won't do you much good if you're installing snow chains. Get gloves that are water resistant.
9. Beanie or baseball cap. A knit hat that covers your ears will keep your head warm. Or a cap with a bill will keep snow from hitting your face.
10. A towel to use after snow chain installation and removal, to put on the seat to keep it dry from your wet outer layers.
11. Water. If there's an accident on the pass you could be idled for hours. It's a good idea to carry some water.
12. Snacks. Keep a few energy or protein bars with a long shelf life in your kit.
13. Kid items. Long road delays+hungry kids = nightmare. An extra diaper, a deck of cards and bag of snacks won't take up much room and could make things a lot more tolerable.
14. Pet items. A foldable fabric water bowl, spare leash and treats will be rewarded with lots of wags.
And one last thing: keep waterproof shoes handy inside your vehicle. Driving to your destination with wet feet in winter is no fun. Bring along the galoshes, just in case.
Want more tips on winter road safety? See 19 Winter Driving Resources You Can't Do Without.
Did you know you can get a free pre-trip safety check for your vehicle at Les Schwab? Find out more here.
4 Reasons Not to Drive Winter Tires Through Summer
If you're thinking of driving on your winter tires year-round, there's a strong case against it. You'll wear out your tires much faster. You'll compromise traction and handling in all four seasons. And changing out your tires twice a year doesn't have to cost you anything, including your valuable time. Here's what you should know.
1. Winter tires wear out faster in the heat
Winter tires are made with a more flexible rubber compound that helps deliver the best road grip in snowy and icy conditions. All-season tires are made with a harder rubber blend that can withstand hot weather.
Heat is really hard on winter tires, which are meant to be used when temperatures are 45°F or below. Winter tires run on hot pavement will wear out much faster than their expected tread life. Because they are made with a softer compound, they will also tend to wear unevenly when driven in the wrong conditions.
2. It will cost you, not save you money
Since winter tires typically cost more than all-season tires, using them all year means you're wearing out a more expensive set much faster than its expected mileage life. It's smarter to buy two sets of tires made for your driving conditions and swap them when the weather changes.
You'll also pay more for gas when you use winter tires in summer. On hot blacktop, they roll with far more friction than tires built for warm weather.
This higher rolling resistance means worse fuel economy ? and more out of your pocket at the pump. It doesn't do any favors for Mother Nature either, since you'll be contributing higher carbon emissions from using more gas.
As with any investment, you save money when you get the most value from your tires. One way to get the longest life out of tires is to use them for what they're made for.
3. Traction and handling issues
Take it from Click and Clack of Car Talk:
You have to change to summer or all-season tires during warmer weather…Your handling is compromised in warm weather. Imagine if you need to make an emergency maneuver, and your tires are kind of soft and squishy. You're not going to get the kind of crisp handling that you need in order to avoid that oncoming sausage delivery truck. So, if you live in a place where you need winter tires for part of the year, you really have to replace them in the spring with something better suited to the warm weather.
Stopping distance is also a big issue, since winter tires require a bit longer for braking on wet or dry pavement.
Plus, when cold weather comes around again, you're going to be relying on worn tires. Tires designed for winter will get uneven shoulder wear and faster tread wear if used in the summer months.
Winter tires with worn tread blocks don't provide as much grip on icy, snowy surfaces. Without deep grooves and intact traction features, your tires won't channel snow, slush and water as well. When it comes to traction, lack of tread depth is a bigger safety risk in winter.
4. Swapping tires can be easy and free
Swapping out winter tires for all-season or performance tires twice a year is only a big effort if you do it yourself. The best tire shops do it for free as long as your tires are on wheels. If not, you can generally pay a small fee to have it done with little waiting.
The Bottom Line on Driving Winter Tires All Year
Your overall cost per mile will be lowest when you drive on tires that are proper for the season and your driving conditions. You'll get the most mileage out of them along with the control and traction you've paid for. And you'll be more secure on the road.
Be a Hero with a Summer Road Trip Safety Kit
Picture yourself as the only one with jumper cables at the boat launch when someone has a dead battery. Or looking like a genius when you bring out a deck of cards to keep restless kids busy while you change a flat tire.
Being road-trip ready means more than just carrying a charged cellphone with your roadside assistance number handy.
Keeping a simple summer road trip safety kit in your vehicle during the warm months will make your travel more carefree ? and you just might save the day. Here's what to have.
21 Items to Have in Your Summer Road Trip Safety Kit
1. A clear, plastic storage bin to keep everything together and spot items more easily
2. First-aid kit
3. Fire extinguisher, rated for Class B and Class C fires
4. Spare tire, properly inflated, along with the jack, lug wrench and some work gloves
5. A ground mat or towel to use on hot pavement if you have to change a tire
6. Tire pressure gauge
7. Extra windshield wiper fluid in case you go through a "bug storm"
8. Rags for keeping your windshield clean, or in case you need to get under the hood and get at hot or oily areas
9. Three road flares, orange safety triangles or battery-operated warning lights. If you have to change a flat tire, place them 50 feet apart to warn oncoming traffic. Available at auto parts stores.
10. A fluorescent safety vest with reflective strips to improve your visibility if you're stranded on the side of a busy highway. Sold at most big-box home improvement stores.
11. A baseball cap or visor to provide some sun protection if you get stuck in a place with no shade
12. A reflective emergency blanket to use for shade. You can buy one at most sporting goods or variety stores.
13. Sunscreen, especially if you have small kids along
14. Speaking of children, stow a travel board game or some playing cards, an extra diaper if needed, and long shelf-life snacks, like nuts, dried fruit, granola bars and protein bars. Such small things will help keep them occupied and more comfortable in case you're waiting for roadside assistance.
15. Wet wipes
16. Pet items. A collapsible water bowl, spare leash and treats may come in handy.
17. In addition to a water bottle for every person in your car, carry a gallon of drinking water. Bring even more if you have the dog along.
18. Jumper cables
19. Multitool or a mini toolkit with Phillips and flathead screwdrivers, adjustable wrench and pliers. These could be useful if you're hauling a trailer or have gear racks.
20. Headlamp with fresh batteries, because flat tires can happen after dark, and you'll need your hands free
21. Duct tape, for temporary repair of a hose leak
When you're unprepared, an auto breakdown during hot months can be just as hairy as getting stranded in winter. Your summer road trip safety kit will make getting through it a whole lot easier.
A winter road trip safety kit is also a good idea. See what belongs in yours.
Check the Road Conditions Before Your Trip
Make the most of your travels with road cams, mileage calculators, scenic byway routes, and weather forecasts from your local Department of Transportation.
Road Trip Checklist
Free Pre-Trip Safety Inspection
Taking a little time to make sure everything's in good working order before you hit the road can mean the difference between the trip of a lifetime and being stranded.
Stop by for a free pre-trip safety check on the following, no appointment necessary. Les Schwab will help you get where you're going.
- Tire pressure check
- Tire tread depth check
- Visual alignment check
- Brake check
- Shock/strut check
- Battery check
Do I Need Snow Tires if I Have AWD?
You can probably safely drive your AWD (all-wheel-drive) with all-season tires in light or moderate snow. But it's a common misperception that AWDs will drive like tanks in slick conditions.
It's recommended that you have either winter tires or snow chains on your AWD if you're driving in a blizzard or icy conditions. Traveling with summer or worn all-season tires on any vehicle in winter is a safety risk. Even a 4WD (four-wheel-drive) will slip and slide on snowy roads if its tires don't have enough tread.
What AWD Does Really Well in Snow
AWD is great at getting your car moving from a dead stop and accelerating smoothly in a straight line when the pavement is slippery. It's able to do this because it sends more power to whichever wheels are getting the most traction and less power to the spinning wheels.
But if you don't have enough traction in the first place, the AWD system can't compensate. If none of the four tires has enough grip, you're in trouble.
This is why an AWD equipped with all-season tires might not deliver safe braking and sharp cornering in significant snow or on ice. In fact, some independent testing shows that a front-wheel-drive (FWD) mounted with winter tires will have shorter stopping distance and better cornering than an AWD with all-season tires.
How Winter Tires Provide Better Traction
To be clear, what some people call snow tires are, in fact, winter tires built for better road grip in ALL winter conditions ? rain, ice, snow and slush.
Winter tires are made with specialized rubber that stays softer during cold temperatures. They're designed with tread features like bigger grooves, biting edges, sipes, optional studs and variations in the block shapes for improved gripping even in subzero temperatures.
All-season and summer tires are made with a different rubber compound so they will maintain their shape even on hot pavement. They don't have as many jagged surfaces and have fewer or shallower channels for ejecting water or snow.
Are Winter Tires Worth it for AWD Vehicles?
AWD is helpful when you're starting to move or accelerating on slick roads, but not so much when you're cornering or stopping. It's not a substitute for having winter tires.
If you're only visiting snowy areas once or twice a year, you may be fine driving an AWD with all-season tires in good condition. Just be sure to carry tire chains.
If it's frigid where you live or you're traveling in more than light snow every month, then buying a set of winter tires for your AWD will deliver the road grip you need for most winter weather conditions. Of course, you may also need a set of good chains for the worst weather.
Do These 10 Things to Stay Safe on Winter Roads [Infographic]
After a few months of warm weather, we sometimes forget how to adjust to winter conditions. Follow these 10 tips when you head out on snowy or icy roads.
- Slow down. Leave early so you won't be rushing.
- Skid smart. Learn how to handle your car so you don't find yourself skidding. Here are some tips for driving on icy roads.
- Skid 101. Winter driving classes can help. Find one in your area.
- Be prepared. Road delays and breakdowns happen. Put together a winter road trip safety kit and keep it in your car until spring.
- Have patience. Maybe you don't need to run those errands right now. Wait for road conditions to get better.
- Shoulder safety. If you have to pull over, get off the road as far as possible, turn off your headlights and turn on your hazards.
- Don't cruise. Cruise control can cause your tires to spin too fast on slick roads, which will decrease your control.
- Passing precaution. Allow extra distance for yourself when you're passing or just hang out where you are.
- Be seen. Use your low-beam headlights even during the day. Overcast skies don't make for good daytime visibility.
- Keep your distance. Make sure you give yourself space from the car ahead of you. You need at least 3 times more space on a snowy road and at least 10 times more space on an icy road to stop as on a dry road.
- Bonus tip! Keep the gas tank at least half full. If you run into car trouble and need to sit by the side of the road, you'll want to keep your engine running to stay warm.
Do you have to go out right after that snowstorm? Here's our advice for safer driving in snow.
Does Adding Weight in the Back Improve My Car’s Traction in Snow?
Should you add weight in your trunk or the bed of your pickup to improve winter traction? For best traction you want a greater percentage of the vehicle's weight centered over the drive wheels, the wheels where the engine sends the power to propel the car. Basically:
- Do add weight in the back of a rear-wheel-drive vehicle
- Don't add weight to the back of a front-wheel-drive vehicle
- Don't add weight in the back of an all-wheel-drive vehicle
- Consider adding weight to the back of a 4WD in some circumstances
Here are the details.
Weight in the Back Helps for RWDs
When there's snow on the road and you're finding that you don't have enough traction to get up hills, you fishtail going around curves or your tires spin when you put your vehicle into gear with only light pressure on the gas, it's a sign that you could use more weight.
A pickup truck is built to carry cargo, but today lots of truck drivers don't routinely haul anything in their beds. An empty cargo bed means some of the weight the truck was designed to carry on the rear axle for balanced handling is missing and you're getting less than ideal traction from the rear wheels. It's a good thing to add extra mass.
Other RWD Vehicles
A rear-wheel drive car or SUV has a nearly even weight balance between front and back, with each tire carrying about an equal share of the vehicle's load. Placing some weight in the trunk over the rear axle may help a bit with snow traction, but not if you have a car fully loaded with gear and people in back. In that instance, you've already got a greater percentage of weight over the drive wheels and you don't need to add anything else.
How Much Weight?
Figuring out the right weight to carry could take a bit of trial and error to see what works best for your vehicle and driving. Below are general rules of thumb.
Of course, never add more payload than the safe weight limit listed in your owner's manual under "standard" and "maximum" vehicle payloads.
Type of Vehicle Suggested Added Weight ½-ton pickup 240-300 lbs. ¾- to 1-ton pickup 300-400 lbs. Sedan/SUV/CUV 100 lbs.
Will the Added Weight Make It Harder to Stop?
It may seem intuitive that a heavier car will mean longer stopping distance, due to added momentum. Not necessarily.
The added mass (no more than a few hundred pounds) isn't enough to make a significant difference in braking. The weight flattens out the tires, increasing the size of the contact patch, the area where the rubber meets the road. The tires become less round and have more gripping surface, which helps a vehicle slow down faster.
Best Materials to Use
Tube-shaped sandbags are the most popular. They come in 60- to 70-pound bags at about $5 a pop at home improvement and hardware stores.
Besides sand, common materials for weight are drainage gravel, potting soil, cat litter and rock salt. You can sprinkle any of these on the ground for traction if you ever get stuck in snow. Dump soil in the garden come spring for new plantings.
Some pickup drivers leave their fifth wheel hitches in the bed during winter, which can add roughly 250 pounds.
There are also reusable, water-bladder traction aids for all types of vehicles that range in price from $70-200.
Even just keeping a full gas tank can help. A filled 16-gallon tank can add over 100 pounds.
- Plastic mesh, burlap and plastic bags will start to disintegrate over the course of a winter. You risk rust if the material in the bag collects moisture then leaks and comes in contact with metal. Buy double-wrapped bags to prevent this. You'll also potentially extend the life of the weight to several seasons.
- DON'T just let a truck bed fill up with snow to provide weight: When you're driving it will fly out behind you, causing visibility problems for following vehicles.
- DON'T use cement blocks or railroad ties, which could become dangerous projectiles in a wreck.
- If the roads are usually dry with only occasional slick winter conditions, you can just add weights when there's weather, and keep the bags stored when not, for best gas mileage.
Where Should I Put It?
Sandbags should be centered over the rear axle, or as close to it as possible. This means in the trunk or cargo area as close to the rear wheels as you can in RWD cars and SUVs and right next to the wheel wells in a pickup. It's not a good idea to wedge the weight by the pickup tailgate, since this could lighten the front end too much, causing handling instability.
Added Weight Won't Help Traction for FWD or AWD Vehicles
In a front-wheel drive, about 65 percent of the weight of the engine is over the front axle. This is a good thing for snow traction. The weight flattens the shape of the front tires a bit, even if they have the same tire pressure as the rear. This increases the friction between the road and the tires on the wheels that are responsible for moving the car. More friction means more road grip.
Adding weight to the trunk could actually cause problems with FWD cars, especially if you've got the whole family and luggage loaded. A lot more weight in the rear can create a teeter-totter effect, with the back weight making the front comparatively too light for proper grip.
More weight won't improve traction for all-wheel-drive vehicles either. If slipping or skidding is detected, 90 percent or more of an AWD engine's power will be sent to whichever wheels have tires that are getting better grip. If there's more weight in the rear, it could lighten the front too much, causing less traction there. The engine could compensate by sending more power to those wheels, which could cause them to spin.
Plus, AWD adds significant weight to some models of cars, which also helps with traction.
Do I Need Weight in the Back for My 4WD? Maybe.
Automatic transmission four-wheel drive vehicles do well on winter traction without extra weight, so long as the tire tread is in good condition. If you have a manual transmission, if you're driving a lot in icy conditions or on hills, or if you're spinning out even when only lightly hitting the gas, some weight in the back may still help.
Having the Right Tires Matters More
Tires in good condition are a much more important factor than weight for starting, cornering, accelerating and stopping in snow. Tires without enough tread will spin or skid on snow whether you have additional weight in the rear or not. Even if you have an AWD or automatic 4WD vehicle you won't have safe traction if you've got worn tires.
But if you have good tires and are driving a RWD car or SUV, a pickup truck or a manual 4WD vehicle, adding sandbags to the back can give you some additional traction in winter conditions.
See our winter driving resource list for more tips on making it safely through the season.
How to De-Winterize Your RV
Time for camping and summer road trips? While your owner's manual likely has a list of items specific to your vehicle that should be checked, here's a checklist of 22 things you should be certain to take care of before your first ramble in your motorhome. The advice will apply to travel trailers, too.
Inspect the Outside
1. Check beneath the vehicle for signs of leaking fluids. If you see any stains or puddles, you should take it in for service.
2. Look carefully at the tires. When a vehicle is parked for long stretches, tire condition can degrade. Tires can be damaged by sun exposure, weather and pollution. Sitting in one place for too long can also cause a flattened spot to develop on the portion of the tires that has been supporting all the vehicle's weight. If there's any cracking or bulging, a tire may need to be replaced. Also, top off the air pressure and test to make sure the lug nuts are secure.
3. Even if the tires appear in good condition, repack wheel bearings with grease. It's important for safety, since the vehicle's weight rides on the wheel bearings. Do it yourself or come to us.
4. Make sure headlights, tail lights, high beams and blinkers are working.
5. Clear the exhaust pipe if you blocked it to keep out mice.
6. Look over the full exterior, including the roof. You're looking for peeling paint, cracks and gaps at seams, or rust, all of which will need repair. Don't forget to check the A/C air filter in case it needs to be cleaned or replaced.
7. Roll out and clean your awning, and check them for holes. Don't wait to repair them; they'll expand and become a bigger problem if you delay.
Under the Hood
8. Tend to the batteries. (Les Schwab Tires does free battery charges and checks.) If your motor home was stored someplace warm, look for corrosion around the battery connections. Clean it off carefully. If your battery fluid is low, get it topped off. If you live someplace that freezes a lot in winter, you probably removed the batteries before storage. Reconnect them, making sure clamps are snug and there's no corrosion.
9. Check for rodent damage, cracks and loose hose and wiring connections.
10. Check the oil. Moisture can get into the fuel system in cold weather, so consider changing the oil and filter even if you're not due.
Prepare the Plumbing System
11. If you used RV antifreeze to protect the water system from freezing, drain it from everything, including the water heater and holding tanks. (Dispose of it properly to protect fish and waterways.)
12. Flush the plumbing thoroughly with clean water: Fill up the fresh water holding tank, turn the water pump on and run all faucets. Make sure water cycles through everything, including the washer, icemaker, outdoor shower and water heater (if it wasn't bypassed when you added the antifreeze). When you see clear water running through the system, turn off the pump and shut off the faucets.
13. Now sanitize the plumbing. Chlorine-free water system cleansers are available, or you can use one-quarter cup household bleach per 15 gallons of water. Close all drains and put drain plugs in place, pour the cleaner into the fresh water tank and fill with water. Turn on the water pump and run water through all hot and cold faucets until you detect the cleanser, then turn off the faucets and pump. Let it sit for 12 hours before draining and refilling with clean water. Repeat until any remaining cleanser is flushed. Make sure to cycle through all tanks.
14. Reinstall any water filters that were removed for winter storage.
15. Go to a waste disposal site to empty the dirty water you've flushed through the system from your gray and black water holding tanks.
Check the Living Quarters
16. Once the water system is clean and the water heater is full, check the electrical systems. As your house batteries recharge, you can make sure the fridge is cooling, flip lights on, plug in the toaster, microwave and coffeemaker, run fans and check power outlets. If something's not working, try resetting your breaker switches.
17. Run the slides out, listening for any cracking or popping sounds. If so, your seals or the slide mechanism may need lubrication or hydraulic fluid may need to be topped off. Also make sure slides look centered. If not, they may need to be adjusted.
18. Open the main propane gas valve, then check to make sure gas appliances are working, including all stove burners. (Also, get a leak test and gas operating pressure test done annually.) Check the water heater, upping the thermostat until the furnace turns on. Try running the refrigerator on gas to make sure it will keep working when you're underway.
19. Inspect the cabin for any signs of mold, rodents and insects. You may have to wash bedding, cushions or window treatments if there's been a strong odor trapped inside. If there's been a pest invasion, find areas they may have gotten in and cover them.
20. Verify your safety systems and kits are in working order: smoke and carbon monoxide detectors, flashlights, fire extinguisher, emergency road kit and first aid kit. Replace batteries as needed.
Check Fuel & Brakes
21. Start the engine. If you filled up and added stabilizer before storage, you're probably good to go. Fuel stabilizer can keep fuel fresh for around two years. But if you didn't, or the vehicle sat for more than a year, it may not want to start. Try adding starter additive to the stale fuel.
22. While parked, tap your brakes, making sure you feel the right amount of pressure and the pedal doesn't sink to the floorboard. If anything seems amiss, have brake pads and shocks examined.
Now you're ready to hit the road and make some summer memories.
How to Take Your Car Out of Winter Storage: a Checklist
Summer will be here soon. Sports car, classic car and hobby car owners, start your engines.
Actually, before you do, you’ll want to follow some simple steps to bring your summer ride out to play after a long winter.
Here’s a checklist of what to do—either on your own or at the shop—if you’ve had your vehicle stored.
- Check the battery charge. Make sure battery terminal connections are snug and there’s no corrosion.
- Inspect wiring and hoses. Check for rodent damage, cracks and loose connections.
- Make sure your oil level is normal. Get an oil change as soon as possible.
- Top off air in tires and make sure the tread is intact (no bulges, cracks or balding areas).
- Look under the vehicle for signs of fluid leaks.
- Have brake pads and shocks examined.
- Verify that headlights, brights, taillights and blinkers are operating.
- Clear the exhaust pipe, if you plugged it to keep out mice.
- Air out the interior.
Under the Hood
If you used a battery tender to maintain proper charge during storage, your battery should be ready to go. Check the tender to be sure the battery is fully charged.
If you’ve had the battery hooked up to a cheaper trickle charger, the output voltage may have gone high enough to cause overcharging. This can result in off-gassing and damage if you have a standard wet-cell lead acid battery.
If your vehicle has been sitting for months on end with no recharger at all, your battery may be weak or drained.
Check the charge with an electronic tester. (Les Schwab Tires does two-part battery inspections free, any time.) If it’s low, you’ll need to get it charged. If it’s dead, and you need it replaced, your onboard computer system may need to be reset.
Look at the terminals to see if there’s any corrosion from off-gassing/overcharging. You can gently clean any residue off the posts and cable clamps with a solution of water and baking soda and an old toothbrush. Be sure to wear gloves and eye protection.
Make sure there are no cracks or signs of wear on the cables; jiggle them at the terminals to be sure the connections are snug.
Also look for vermin nests or chewed hoses, belts or cables. Verify air filters are clean. Check the oil dipstick to be sure the level is good enough to last until you can get an oil change. When you get service, have the technician check your spark plugs, cylinders and PCV and fuel filters.
Check windshield wiper fluid and coolant and add as necessary.
Check your air pressure. If it’s low, top it off with a home air compressor, or get to a tire store or filling station first thing and inflate to the pressure indicated on the driver side door placard.
Also look at your tread wear and inspect all tires for cracks and bulges. Be sure to look on the sidewalls facing the axles as well as the street side. You may need a flashlight.
While you’re looking at the wheels, check under the car for any sign of fluid leaks. Even if you don’t see any, you’ll want to have the transmission, power steering, and brake fluids checked.
It’s also time for an oil change. Though your vehicle hasn’t been driven in months, the oil is old and may be contaminated by condensation or acids.
If you neglected to add fuel stabilizer to your gas tank before storage, fill up with high-octane gas and add some octane booster.
Brakes & Suspension
When you’re ready to start up, first make sure your tailpipe is clear. Give your vehicle some time to warm up. Let it run for a bit, until you hear a smooth idle, before putting it into gear. Don’t rev the engine.
Before you set out, tap the brake pedal to make sure it feels right. Make your first drive leisurely and listen for unusual noises. Watch the dashboard for any warning lights indicating something needs attention.
You may notice some noise while braking at first. This could be caused by rust that's accumulated on the surface of the brake rotor or drum. If the noise is constant or recurring, have your brakes and pads inspected. Don’t ignore it. Be sure to have shocks checked as well.
Then enjoy the summer driving season.
Do You Need to Replace All 4 Tires on Your AWD Vehicle?
Front tires on an all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicle often wear more quickly than those on the rear axle. Why? Misalignment, aggressive driving, underinflated tires and failure to regularly rotate front tires to the back are common causes. (Get tips on avoiding some of these problems here.)
So it can be tempting to try to nurse along AWD tires that still have some tread life on them by replacing only two. But this is almost always not the best decision for your pocketbook. Here's why it's better to replace all four AWD tires at once.
Mismatching AWD Tires Can Damage Your Vehicle
A new tire is actually larger than one of the same brand, type and size that's partway through its tread life. There's a measurable difference in tire circumference.
To understand why this matters, think of two horses of unequal size at gallop. The taller horse covers more ground in a single stride than the smaller horse. Over the miles, the smaller horse will take more strides and run harder to keep up.
The same is true for mismatched tires. A bigger tire (one with more tread depth) travels more distance in a single revolution than a smaller tire. So to compensate, a smaller-diameter tire will spin faster, revolving a bit more than one revolution for every revolution of the bigger tire.
Here's an illustration showing how even if a tire is labelled the same size, the tire with less tread depth (the smaller/used tire) will revolve more times than the newer (bigger) tire with more tread depth.
So why is mixing new tires with used on an AWD a potential problem? First, a difference in diameter of less than half an inch between front and rear tires on your AWD can mean trouble for the drivetrain, the parts of the car that transfer the power to move the vehicle forward.
This is because the heat that builds up from the effort of the smaller tires "trying to keep up" creates stress on the transmission and axles that can result in expensive repairs.
Second, if the two tires on one axle are spinning faster than the others, your car's electronics may think those are slipping, and put you in the wrong gear. Most AWD systems in today's cars include sensors on each wheel that monitor traction and wheel speed hundreds of times per second. This is what allows the AWD system to work in slick conditions, by sending power to whatever wheel(s) have the most traction.
When smaller tires are spinning faster, the system may put your vehicle into four-wheel lock, the gear that's used for driving in slippery conditions. That's a no-no, since driving in that mode on pavement or at speed can cause damage to your car.
Buy two or four new AWD tires?
If two of your tires are due to be replaced (Hint: use the penny test to find out), it's absolutely essential to check your vehicle's owner's manual to see if it recommends replacing all four of your AWD tires at once. Look in the tires and transmission sections. Or call your auto dealer for your make and model and ask the service department. Ignoring this advice may result in costly damage to some of the most important driving components of your car, like the transmission. Any reputable tire dealer will follow what the car maker says to do. And almost all manufacturers agree that you should replace all four.
Also, get a tire pro to use a tread depth gauge to accurately measure the tread if you think two of your tires still have some tread life in them. If there's more than 3/32nds difference in tread depth between your new and keeper tires, spring for a full set of four new tires. Even that much of a difference really matters.
Recap: why you need to replace all four AWD tires
- Mismatched tires are often a primary factor in drivetrain damage.
- To minimize variances, always match tires: same brand, size and type.
- The tread depth difference between front and rear tires should be no more than 3/32nds of an inch.
- If it is, you've got a problem with tire circumference difference. Get all four tires replaced.
Not sure if your auto is AWD (or four-, rear- or front-wheel drive?) Check your owner's manual and read up here on the differences.
Summer Tires vs All-Season Tires: Which Are Best for You?
Are summer tires better in rain?
Yep, it may surprise you to know that summer tires outperform all-season tires on wet pavement.
Read on to learn about the upsides and downsides of summer tires, including handling, temperature range limits and how they manage heat.
What Are Summer Tires?
Summer tires are also known as performance tires. They're called that for a reason.
Performance tires are designed to provide excellent dry and wet traction along with precise handling. They're meant to be used during warm months, or all year in regions that don't get a true winter.
Why Summer Tires Perform Better in Heat and Rain
Summer tires are optimized for excellent road grip whether it's baking hot, slightly damp or raining heavily on the road. They're made from a tread compound (the mix of rubber and fillers that make up the tread) containing sticky additives for road grip in wet conditions. But this tread blend also provides enough stiffness so tires hold up and retain their shape when the heat is on. This keeps rolling resistance to a minimum on hot pavement.
Tread patterns typically feature shallower, straighter grooves than what you'll see on all-seasons, and solid, continuous ribs, so more rubber is always in contact with the road. The result: more stability during cornering, braking and acceleration.
Since performance tires often have asymmetrical or unidirectional tread patterns, tire rotation options may be limited. You may only be able to rotate front tires to opposite sides versus criss-crossing to even out tread wear, for example.
While it may come as news to many that summer tires outperform all-season tires when it comes to both wet and dry traction, here's something that won't surprise: Performance tires don't offer any winter traction. They get rigid at cold temps and aren't a safe choice in any snow or ice conditions.
All-Season Tires Trade Off Some Traction for Longer Wear
All-season tires are engineered to give vehicles enough winter traction to get through light snow conditions, making it possible for a driver to run one set of tires year-round in places that don't get a lot of snowfall or ice.
They're made with a compound that stays flexible even at temperatures a bit above freezing, to maintain road grip. Their tread patterns have deeper grooves and feature more voids and variations which help with traction for occasional travel in snow. The designs are usually symmetrical, so there are more rotation options to even out tread wear and extend tire mileage.
They are like a hybrid between summer and winter tires, made to handle a broad variety of weather and road conditions moderately well, while getting good tread life. They don't substitute for genuine winter tires, which are necessary for stable driving on serious snow, sleet and ice.
If you're choosing between performance and all-season tires, here's a quick comparison.
Should You Buy Summer Tires?
If you live where it never snows and temperatures are typically 44°F or warmer during your normal drive times, summer tires are a good choice. Performance tires are especially well-suited to urban areas with warm climates that get some rain, because they are better at preventing hydroplaning at highway speeds than all-season tires.
If you live in an area where the weather is not so predictable, where you may encounter freezing rain or light snow conditions in fall or spring, it's better to go with all-season tires.
And if winter in your area means temperatures that dip below freezing along with precipitation, or you regularly travel to high elevations, get a set of winter tires and swap them out in November and March.
Driving in rain regularly? Find out how to avoid hydroplaning.
TPMS Light Coming On in Cold Weather? Here's Why
If your TPMS (tire pressure monitoring system) warning light goes on during a cold snap, it may not mean your tire has a leak.
Tire pressure can decrease about 1 PSI (pound per square inch) for every 10 degrees the temperature drops. It's not that more air is escaping your tires, but rather the air inside the tire condenses, taking up less space when it's cold. It's similar to how a cake, just out of the oven, flattens out a bit as it cools.
Tires also lose about 1 PSI per month just from seepage of air around the edge of the rim and through the tread itself.
These two factors combined can cause the air pressure in a tire to go 25 percent below the recommended fill pressure. This is what triggers the sensing transmitters inside your tires to illuminate your TPMS dash light. Whenever your TPMS light comes on, have your air checked and bring your tires up to the proper pressure.
Winter Tire Pressure
Temperature changes outside affect your tire pressure. If it gets up to 45 degrees by day and drops to 15 degrees at night, your tire pressure will vary 3 PSI, not counting normal air loss. This is why it's not unusual to have the low pressure indicator light go on first thing in the morning, since it's usually coldest overnight.
The light may shut off on its own after you drive 20 minutes or so, as the air in your tires warms and expands and proper inflation level stabilizes.
Regardless, you should get your air checked right away. The TPMS light means your tires are at least 25 percent below the proper air pressure. This is a safety risk, especially if you're carrying a load close to your vehicle's max capacity. There's a greater chance of tire failure, compromised handling and increased wear and tear on your tires. Your gas mileage could also suffer.
When you top off your tires, the TPMS light will go off as the tire regains the proper pressure.
Note: If the warning light is flashing, this is a problem with the vehicle's TPMS system, not your tires, and you should take your car to the shop.
One More Reason Your TPMS Light May Go On
Your TPMS light may flash if your vehicle's onboard computer can't detect the sensor because you're using a spare tire. They typically don't have TPMS sensors.
How to Get Winter Tire Pressure Right
Once a month, have your pressure checked when the tires are cold (meaning the car is parked outside and hasn't been driven in four hours) and inflate them to what's indicated on your placard located on the inside of your car door.
For more information regarding TPMS with your vehicle, please review your owner's manual.
7 Things To Do When Your Car is Stuck in Snow
A blizzard is on the way. You've stocked up on candles, hot cocoa and batteries. But what if you have to leave the house? Do you know how to get your car out of the snow if you get stuck?
From driving techniques to using props, here are seven ways to get your car moving again, plus some advice about how to prepare for a snowstorm.
Before it Snows
There are two key things to do BEFORE the storm arrives to be sure you can get your vehicle back on the road after a big snow. They can make the difference between looking like a genius and having huge hassles.
Have the right tires in the right condition.
If you live somewhere where storms can bring a foot or two of snow at once, you should definitely be running winter tires, not all-season tires. (Find out how to choose snow tires.) Before the snow starts falling, get your air pressure checked and make sure your tire tread's in the proper condition.
Keep a snow shovel in your vehicle.
Not only will this come in handy for you, you may be a hero to those who are caught unprepared. (Speaking of preparedness, here's a winter safety kit checklist of other items to keep in your car so you're ready for pretty much any winter road condition.)
Before You Turn Your Vehicle On
Turn off traction control.
Both drive wheels will need to have traction for you to get unstuck. These are the front tires on a front-wheel-drive and the rear tires on rear-wheel drive, AWD and 4WD vehicles. Turn off the car's traction control system (usually with a button somewhere on the dashboard or console).
Clear a path around the tires.
Starting with the drive tires, dig the snow out from in front, underneath and in back. Clear a path long enough for wheels to move forward and back a few feet, assuming you have that much space on either end of the car. Remove any snow around the tires that's higher than the ground clearance of the car. Dig out snow from under the front of your car. If you're high-centered, with snow or ice under the vehicle blocking your exit, you won't be going anywhere.
If you don't have a shovel handy, try using a screwdriver, ice scraper or other tool to at least break up any ice that's formed below the tires. A rougher surface area provides more traction.
Also dig out the tailpipe before you start the engine. People have lost their lives from carbon monoxide building up inside a vehicle when they didn't know the exhaust pipe was blocked.
1. The Forward-and-Back Technique
Start your vehicle, roll down your window and take off your hat or earmuffs so you can hear clearly. Even better, stick your head out the window to watch your front tire. You'll get the best traction by straightening the wheel, so do this as much as your parking situation allows.
Put your vehicle in the lowest gear. If you've got a four-wheel drive SUV or pickup, engage the low-range gearing. Move forward just a bit.
Now slowly back up. Don't rev the engine. Stop, then put it in forward and apply a little gas. This can tamp down loose snow and maybe give you enough traction to get out.
Listen carefully. If you hear any tire spinning, take your foot off the gas immediately.
2. The Braking Technique
If your vehicle didn't move at all or a tire is spinning, try braking while at the same time that you're giving a little gas. This should decrease the spinning and transfer some power to that wheel.
If you have a front-wheel-drive and there aren't curbs or other cars blocking your way, try turning the wheels slightly the other way and see if that gives you more traction.
Don't try this braking method for more than a few seconds. It can overheat your brakes which can compromise braking until they've cooled down.
3. Find Some Muscle
Sometimes a push from a few Good Samaritans will do the trick. Be 100 percent sure you use only the gear that keeps pushers out of harm's way (Forward gear only if they're pushing your vehicle from behind.). Ask your helpers to push on the count of three as you gently apply the gas.
4. Use Snow Chains
If you're still stuck and you have snow chains, it's time to chain up. That almost always does the trick.
5. The Rocking Technique
If you don't have chains, and your vehicle is moving forward some but then stopping, try "rocking" back and forth between forward and reverse gears. Give it a little gas just as the vehicle starts to swing forward out of reverse. This may give you enough momentum to drive out. But be aware that this kind of rapid shifting can overload your transmission. Only try it a few times or you could end up with expensive damage. It will be much cheaper to just call a tow truck.
6. Add Traction with Sand, Kitty Litter or Cardboard
If you're still spinning, you can put something on the ground to add traction that won't damage your tires. Try sprinkling sand or kitty litter in front of the drive tires (and behind them if you're planning on backing out).
DON'T EVER USE ANTIFREEZE TO TRY TO MELT SNOW AND ICE. Antifreeze is toxic to children, pets, and wild animals, and it can find its way through storm drains to waterways where it can poison marine animals. Plus, in some states, it's illegal to pour antifreeze on the ground. Using salt as a deicer is also a bad idea for the environment ? and your vehicle. It's corrosive to metal (like the undercarriage of your car) and becomes less effective below 25 degrees Fahrenheit anyway.
Another way to get traction is to lay cardboard, plywood, two-by-fours or even your vehicle's floor mats down in front of the drive tires (or behind them if you're starting in reverse). If you're in the middle of nowhere, you can use weeds or branches from the side of the road. But caution: Clear the area and go very easy when accelerating. Sometimes the wheels can make whatever you put down for traction shoot out. And be aware your mats could get ruined. Again, it's probably less out of your pocketbook to get a tow truck.
7. Let a Bit of Air Out of Your Tires
The last resort is to let a little air out of your tires, just enough so they look visibly lower. Only do this if you have a way to get them quickly refilled someplace close by. Driving on underinflated tires puts more rubber in contact with the ground and will give you better traction for a short distance. But driving this way isn't safe and it could damage your tires if it's a long way to the filling station.
Be Prepared When Your Car Does Break Free
If you're in forward gear, don't stop right away but drive somewhere you can see there's less snow and you can safely stop. If you're in reverse, keep backing up for a few yards, then take your foot off the gas. The snow will stop you. Next, put it in low gear and gently accelerate forward in the tracks you've made, just fast enough to break through where you were stuck.
Once You're Unstuck from the Snow
Re-engage your traction control system, if you turned it off. If you engaged your low-range 4WD, disengage. Make sure your radiator has air flow. Snow packed into the front of the grille can cause engine overheating.
Go immediately to the closest service station and refill your tires if you let any air out.
If you notice a vibration in your steering wheel, check for snow packed into your wheels. Pull over someplace safe and knock the snow or ice out with an ice scraper or shovel.
Want a complete list of resources for winter driving safety? Here's our guide for safe driving in winter, from prepping your vehicle to driving in bad conditions.
Important Notice: The information provided above is from a variety of resources deemed reasonably reliable. The operation of your vehicle, or the repair or replacement of your vehicle's equipment, may be different than for a typical vehicle. Please consult your owner's manual for specific warnings, notices, and other advice relative to the above.
Winter Driving Tips: How to Drive in Snow
According to the Federal Highway Administration, about a quarter of weather-related vehicle crashes occur on snowy, slushy or icy pavement and 15 percent happen during snowfall or sleet.
Now for the good news. With the right preparation, you can travel safely even when the weather turns on you. Hint: properly inflated tires in good condition are near the top of the list. This is a must so you have the traction you need.
When you find yourself driving on snow or you're caught in a storm, remember the following advice on vehicle handling.
How to drive on snow and when it's snowing
- Here's a checklist for what you need to do to be prepared.
- Clear snow off windows, mirrors and roof before you leave. When you brake, snow on top can slide forward and cover your windshield.
- Also brush snow off your lights, so you have the best light on the road and other drivers can see you.
- Cut your speed and leave more space between you and the vehicle ahead. A rule of thumb is eight to 10 seconds for a good following distance depending on your tire tread, the weight of your car, the road slope, amount of snow on the road and visibility conditions. You may want even more.
Stopping distance on packed snow
- How much stopping distance will you need? For the reasons above, safe stopping distance varies by vehicle. For a car traveling 35 mph on dry pavement, it can take anywhere from 60 to 97 feet for thinking and braking distance. Double that for driving on wet pavement, triple it for packed snow and 10 times for icy roads. (See this Stopping Distances in Feet chart for calculations at multiple speeds.)
- Avoid sudden stops, abrupt downward gear shifts and quick direction changes. Brake gently to avoid skidding or sliding. If the wheels lock up, ease off the brakes.
- Know what to do before you go into a skid. Skid car classes on how to drive on slick roads are a great idea for young drivers and anyone else traveling by road a lot in winter.
- The rules for getting out of a skid depend on a lot of factors: whether you have anti-lock brakes (ABS), if you have front- or rear-wheel drive, whether the road is icy, if you're going downhill, if you have extra weight in your vehicle. Read the Skid Correction info here for a primer.
- The way to drive downhill on packed snow depends on whether you have ABS. If so, start at the top of the hill as slowly as possible. Leave your auto in normal drive gear and use light, steady pressure on the brake pedal to stay at a safe speed. This allows your antilock braking system to maintain traction by making sure all four tires slow at the same rate when you apply the brakes. (Learn more here.) If you don't have ABS, proceed slowly and lightly pump your brakes on the way down.
- Don't be overconfident just because you have all-wheel drive (AWD). Here's why. You'll get the best traction for driving in winter conditions with snow tires mounted on all four wheels.
Use extra caution
- Stay in your lane, especially when visibility's bad from driving snow. Think twice about passing. More hours of darkness and foul weather mean we just don't see as well on the road in winter.
- Give trucks and snowplows plenty of room. Stay well into your lane and don't follow closely. Big vehicles blow a lot of snow around which lowers visibility.
- NEVER pass big vehicles on the right. Debris, rocks and ice that can crack your windshield get sprayed in all directions from snowplows.
- Don't drive through snowdrifts. They may cause your vehicle to spin out of control.
- When it's snowing, don't use your brights. They will reduce, not improve, road visibility.
- If you're noticing snow turn to sleet or ice, kick your defroster into high. If ice builds up on your windshield pull over when you're in a safe place and use an ice scraper. Don't try to squint through a small section of your windshield.
- Use extreme caution when approaching off-ramps, bridges and shady spots where snow or ice on the road may be worse.
- Never use cruise control in snow or when there's a chance of ice. It can cause your tires to spin faster when you hit a slick spot then fishtail your vehicle when the tires regain traction.
About using snow chains
- Carry chains and know how to use them, including which wheels you need to put them on.
- Near chain-up and removal areas, slow down even more and watch for people in the road.
- If you have to pull over because conditions are too bad to go on, get as far off on the shoulder as safely possible, turn off your headlights and turn on your hazard lights.
Remember that your best bet for driving this season is to make sure your tires are winter ready. Last but not least, be flexible. Sometimes it makes the most sense to stop somewhere for a while or the night to wait out the weather.
Read the full series on all you need to know to drive safely on winter roads to find out how to avoid hydroplaning, how to drive when it's icy or foggy, and real-time Western winter road conditions by state.
Sources for this article include: